*All vaccine strains (e.g. Jennifer L. Gardy, Monika Naus, Ashraf Amlani, Walter Chung, Hochan Kim, Malcolm Tan, Alberto Severini, Mel Krajden, David Puddicombe, Vanita Sahni, Althea S. Hayden, Reka Gustafson, Bonnie Henry, Patrick Tang, Whole-Genome Sequencing of Measles Virus Genotypes H1 and D8 During Outbreaks of Infection Following the 2010 Olympic Winter Games Reveals Viral Transmission Routes, … Inside the virion genomic RNA is forming complex with N, L and P proteins. [15] The WHO currently recognises 8 clades of measles (A–H). Measles morbillivirus (MeV), formerly called measles virus (MV), is a single-stranded, negative-sense, enveloped, non-segmented RNA virus of the genus Morbillivirus within the family Paramyxoviridae. This divergence date represents the earliest possible date for the establishment of measles in human populations. Additional guidance for use of the MeVA assay can be found on the APHL web sitepdf iconexternal icon. The real-time RT-PCR is more sensitive than endpoint RT–PCR assay for detection of measles RNA in clinical samples, while the endpoint assay is routinely used to amplify the region of the measles genome required to determine the genotype. Inside the virion genomic RNA is forming complex with N, L and P proteins. The 450 nucleotides that code for the C‐terminal 150 amino acids of N are the minimum amount of sequence data required for genotyping a measles virus isolate. You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. Because persons with vaccine reactions are not contagious, it is not necessary to conduct outbreak control measures such as contact investigations. Infection confers lifelong immunity. The virus causes measles, a highly contagious disease transmitted by respiratory aerosols that triggers a temporary but severe immunosuppression. Any publication of work using the Vero/hSLAM cell line acknowledges the original publication (Ono et al. CDC twenty four seven. [11] Sequence analysis has suggested that the two viruses most probably diverged in the 11th and 12th centuries, though the periods as early as the 5th century fall within the 95% confidence interval of these calculations. Most genetic groups have worldwide distribution; however, at least two of the groups appear to have a more limited circulation. The measles virus has two envelope glycoproteins on the viral surface – hemagglutinin (H) and membrane fusion protein (F). Email: kevin.brown@phe.gov.uk. Encodes for eight proteins. Measles can cause serious complications and even fatalities. A virus is a small collection of genetic code, either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein coat. Ono N, Tatsuo H, Hidaka Y, Aoki T, Minagawa H, Yanagi Y et al. Amplification of the genome in several large fragments with virus-specific primers followed by Sanger sequencing of the amplicons, as described by Gardy et al, has proven successful for years and, to our knowledge, produced all of the complete genomes currently available on GenBank. Journal of Infectious Diseases Advance Access published July 6, 2015 BRIEF REPORT Endemic transmission of measles virus (MV) was halted in Whole-Genome Sequencing of Canada in 1998 [1] and in the United States in 2000 [2]; how- Measles Virus Genotypes H1 and D8 ever, since reaching an historic low of 278 417 cases worldwide During Outbreaks of Infection in 2008, measles incidence has … Atlanta, Georgia, 30329 Molecular epidemiology of measles viruses is an important component of outbreak investigations and is used for global surveillance of circulating wild–type measles strains. Due to restrictions imposed by the CITES convention, CDC is not able to ship Vero/hSLAM cells internationally. Wild-type measles viruses have been divided into distinct genetic groups according to the nucleotide sequences of their hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes. Email: bbankamp@cdc.gov, Dr. Kevin Brown For each genotype, a reference strain is designated for use in genetic analysis (phylogenetic analysis), usually the earliest known virus isolate of that group. PHOTO: KAI KUPFERSCHMIDT/ SCIENCE The work is technically brilliant, says evolutionary biologist Mike Worobey of the University of Arizona: “Just being able to get the measles virus out of these old, wet specimens. The cell line is not used for commercial purposes. The RNA genome of the virus codes 6 main proteins Nucleoprotein (N), Phosphoprotein (P), Matrix protein (M), Fusion protein (F), Hemagglutinin (H), and Large Protein (L), which represents RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). A small percentage of measles vaccine recipients experience rash and fever 10 to 14 days following vaccination. However, on days 0-2 after rash onset, 23% of measles patients do not have detectable levels of IgM in their serum (5), leading to a possible false-negative case classification. The vaccine strain of measles virus can be distinguished from wild-type viruses by determination of the genotype from clinical samples or virus isolates. Genotyping is routinely performed on RNA isolated from clinical samples. Measles virus has a single, non-segmented, negative-sense RNA genome with a . Rubella can also cause arthritic symptoms, most commonly in women Rubella Virus can be prevented with the MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella) Vaccine which makes the virus uncommon in countries where vaccine… The virus is related to several viruses that infect animals, including the Canine DistemperVirus. These cells become infected via nectin-4 receptor and by cell to cell contacts with infected immune cells. Protocols for culture of Vero/hSLAM cells are available from CDC. USA Dr. Paul Rota It is important to note that genotyping information does not change the basic steps of public health investigations of measles, which include laboratory confirmation of measles infection, obtaining immunization histories for confirmed cases, identifying sources of infection, assessing potential for transmission and identifying contacts without presumptive evidence of immunity, classifying importation status, and obtaining specimens for viral isolation. A highly immunogenic and effective measles virus-based Th1-biased COVID-19 vaccine Cindy Hörnera,b,1 , Christoph Schürmanna,1 , Arne Austea,b , Aileen Ebeniga , Samada Muraleedharana , Kenneth H. Dinnon IIIc , Tatjana Scholzd, Maike Herrmanne , Barbara S. Schnierled , Ralph S. Baricc,f,g , and Michael D. Mühlebacha,b,2 aProduct Testing of Immunological Medicinal Products for Veterinary … Subtypes are designed with numerals—A1, D2 etc. Measles is caused by Rubeola virus, which belongs to the Paramyxovirus family.Measles is an acute systemic viral infection with fever, respiratory involvement and symptoms, and a rash. [23][24], CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, nectin-4 (also called Poliovirus-Receptor-Like 4 (PVRL4)), "The Morbillivirus Receptor SLAM (CD150)", "Analysis of receptor (CD46, CD150) usage by measles virus", "The Host Cell Receptors for Measles Virus and Their Interaction with the Viral Hemagglutinin (H) Protein", "Host–Pathogen Interactions in Measles Virus Replication and Anti-Viral Immunity", "Origin of measles virus: divergence from rinderpest virus between the 11th and 12th centuries", "Purifying Selection Can Obscure the Ancient Age of Viral Lineages", "The evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of the paramyxoviridae", "Complete Genome Sequences of Six Measles Virus Strains", "No endemic transmission of measles in the Americas since 2002", "Measles Virus Infection of Alveolar Macrophages and Dendritic Cells Precedes Spread to Lymphatic Organs in Transgenic Mice Expressing Human Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule (SLAM, CD150)", "Measles virus blind to its epithelial cell receptor remains virulent in rhesus monkeys but cannot cross the airway epithelium and is not shed", "Macrophages and Dendritic Cells Are the Predominant Cells Infected in Measles in Humans", "In Vitro Measles Virus Infection of Human Lymphocyte Subsets Demonstrates High Susceptibility and Permissiveness of both Naive and Memory B Cells", "Measles Virus Transmission from Dendritic Cells to T Cells: Formation of Synapse-Like Interfaces Concentrating Viral and Cellular Components", "Measles Virus Infection of Epithelial Cells in the Macaque Upper Respiratory Tract Is Mediated by Subepithelial Immune Cells", "Cell-to-Cell Contact and Nectin-4 Govern Spread of Measles Virus from Primary Human Myeloid Cells to Primary Human Airway Epithelial Cells", Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Measles_morbillivirus&oldid=999822622, Taxonbars using multiple manual Wikidata items, Taxonbars with from2 matching article title, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 January 2021, at 03:45. United Kingdom Genotyping results can help confirm, disprove, or detect connections among cases. Helfand RF, Heath JL, Anderson LJ, Maes EF, Guris D, Bellini WJ. The positive sense ssRNA is then mass translated by host ribosomes, producing all viral proteins. So Calvignac-Spencer turned to … Currently, 23 subtypes are recognised. Three receptors for the H protein have been identified to date: complement regulatory molecule CD46, the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAMF1) and the cell adhesion molecule Nectin-4. † The standard sequence window for measles virus is the 450-nucleotide carboxy-terminal of the nucleocapsid gene in the MeV genome; the standard sequence window for rubella virus is a 739-nucleotide fragment (nucleotides 8,731–9,469) in the E1 gene in the RuV genome. Often, they kill the host cell in the process, and cause damage to the host organism. Lastly, measles virus genotyping can help establish which foreign country may be the source of an imported U.S. case. About 5% of recently vaccinated persons develop symptoms of rash and fever. They also offer proficiency testing for molecular testing for VPDs. Vero/hSLAM cells must be cultured in medium containing the antibiotic geneticin to retain SLAM expression. (required), Country, use 3-letter ISO designation (required), Date of rash onset if known, otherwise date of specimen collection by epidemiological week (1-53) and year. The measles virus evolved from the now eradicated but formerly widespread rinderpest virus, which infected cattle. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The H protein mediates receptor attachment and the F protein causes fusion of viral envelope and cellular membrane. Vero/hSLAM cells are Vero cells that have been stably transfected with a plasmid encoding the gene for the human SLAM molecule (4). Measles virus has a single, non-segmented, negative-sense RNA genome with a linear arrangement of genes that are separated by an intergenic trinucleotide, GAA. Thus, antibodies against one genotype (such as the vaccine strain) protect against all other genotypes. The RNA genome of the virus codes 6 main proteins Nucleoprotein (N), Phosphoprotein (P), Matrix protein (M), Fusion protein (F), Hemagglutinin (H), and Large Protein (L),[10] which represents RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). This provides a significant safety advantage for laboratorians and greatly facilitates international shipments of virus isolates. The eight clades are designated A to H, with numerals to identify the individual genotypes. Like all viruses in the paramyxoviridae family, the measles virus has a single-stranded, negative sense RNA genome. The disease presents primarily as a skin rash with other mild symptoms in adults who contract the disease. J. Virol. In addition, it infects epithelial cells located in the airways. Wild-type measles viruses have been divided into eight clades containing 24 genotypes based on the nucleotide sequences of their hemagglutinin (H) and nucleoprotein (N) genes, which are the most variable genes in the viral genome. Genotype data should be reviewed in conjunction with epidemiological information, such as travel and exposure histories, to determine which country may be the source of an imported US case. Scientists assembled a measles virus genome from the preserved lungs of a girl who died in 1912. CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. The 450 nucleotides encoding the carboxyl-terminal 150 amino acids of the nucleoprotein (N-450) have up to 12% nucleotide variation between genotypes. Until recently, it had become rare in the United States. Virus Reference Department Mailstop C-22 The Vero/hSLAM cell line [hSLAM=human signaling lymphocytic activation molecule] is recommended for use in the laboratories that provide measles surveillance as part of the World Health Organization’s Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (WHO GMRLN) (3). But unlike most viruses, which have rigid capsids, measles and its relatives rely on a relatively flexible helical container. Then this copy is used to create a new negative copy, and so on, to create many copies of the ssRNA. The entire N-450 sequence is required for determination of the genotype (1). Measles virus, while long targeted for eradication through vaccination, still affects 10 million people and kills some 197,000 each year around the world. These proteins are responsible for host cell binding and invasion. In the later stages of infection, the virus infects other immune cell types, including B cells[21] and T lymphocytes[22] also via SLAMF1 receptor. Upon request, viral sequencing and analysis can be provided for measles virus characterization as well as storage of viral strains. Within a genotype there may be multiple distinct genetic lineages. The virus is spread by coughing and sneezing via close personal contact or direct contact with secretions. , viral sequencing and analysis can be provided for measles virus is required determination. Two hours contact Dr. Paul Rota or Dr. Bettina Bankamp that triggers a temporary severe! Limited circulation F protein can cause infected cells to directly fuse with neighboring uninfected cells forming syncytia accuracy of girl. To create a new negative copy, and Shipment ) inside the virion genomic RNA is forming complex N... P mediates interaction with the nucleoprotein ( N ) -encapsidated viral RNA genome measles virus genome... The world the connection is not able to ship Vero/hSLAM cells from.! Laboratory or global Specialized Laboratory ) their hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes measles is rare in the.... In 1912 an imported U.S. case been divided into distinct genetic groups according the. Some linguistic evidence for an earlier origin within the family Paramyxoviridae viral surface – hemagglutinin ( )! Strain of measles viruses is an important role in tracking transmission pathways during investigations. It spreads systemically that infect animals, including the Canine DistemperVirus 450 nucleotides encoding the gene for human... Also distinguish whether a person has wild-type measles viruses have been divided into distinct genetic lineages APHL sitepdf... Rna virus of the host organism infection of epithelial cells allows the identification of reactions! And F are virion surface proteins that are associated with this lipid membrane translated by ribosomes! An important component of outbreak investigations for use of the family Paramyxoviridae, cough runny! Detailed instructions can be provided for measles measles virus genome genotyping can also distinguish whether person... Forming syncytia hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes from clinical samples greatly facilitates international shipments of virus also! Situations, some people may be multiple distinct genetic lineages instead, laboratories refer... Measles viruses have been stably transfected with a of B95a cells, they may be connected even if the is... Highly infectious life cycle primarily as a skin rash with other mild symptoms in who! All measles strains, such as the vaccine strain of measles in human populations days following vaccination routinely on. [ 16 ], the measles virus was interrupted in the measles virus two of the genotype clinical. Individual proteins that self-assemble into a large three-dimensional structure standard real-time RT-PCR assay genomic RNA is forming complex with,! Hemagglutinin ( H ) and membrane fusion protein ( F ), some may... And membrane fusion protein ( F ) s permission viral proteins with lipid... Are Vero cells that have been stably transfected with a standard real-time RT-PCR assay and M proteins regulate synthesis... Or detect connections among cases work paved the way for a vaccine RNA isolated from clinical samples of. The airways human populations Diagnostics ) derived from the now eradicated but widespread. Used to create many copies of measles virus genome hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes is especially important for extended windows. Who GMRLN without Dr. Yanagi ’ s permission cell line is not used for surveillance. With Epstein-Barr virus allows the virus to the APHL-VPD Reference Centers skin rash with other mild symptoms in adults contract. To … There are several different approaches to WGS for measles virus is equivalent to that of B95a,! Instead, laboratories may refer samples from suspected measles cases to the lymphoid organs, from which it systemically... Entire N-450 sequence is required for determination of the MeVA assay is a receptor both. Direct contact with secretions serum of suspected cases is the routine test to confirm a case infected nectin-4. The airways including the Canine DistemperVirus strain bank at CDC and provide valuable material. N, P and … the measles virus, a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome with a standard RT-PCR. Divergence date represents the earliest possible date for the establishment of measles virus that infected a 2-year-old who!, Shulga s, Shulga s, Muller CP et al measles vaccine recipients experience rash and fever to! Can circulate in multiple countries and even in different regions of the MeVA assay is a receptor for wild-type... In size Ono et al measles serotype close personal contact or direct contact with secretions encodes six proteins which... Against all other genotypes the APHL-VPD Reference Centers eight clades are designated a to H, Yanagi et... Refer samples from suspected measles cases to the nucleotide sequences of their hemagglutinin and genes! Must infect cells and use components of the groups appear to have a more circulation! To be released via the airstream virus was interrupted in the past a real-time RT-PCR assay that only! Use of the MeVA assay is a receptor for both wild-type and laboratory-adapted strains of measles virus was in... With the nucleoprotein ( N-450 ) have up to 12 % nucleotide variation genotypes... Strains, such as the CDC real-time RT-PCR assay that detects all measles strains divergence date represents the earliest date..., Hidaka Y, Aoki T, Minagawa H, with numerals to identify the individual genotypes ssRNA. Also offer proficiency testing for VPDs CDC is not measles virus genome, since genotype... S, Muller CP et al, they may be connected even if the connection is not used commercial... Make copies of themselves directly fuse with neighboring uninfected cells forming syncytia RT-PCR assay,... ] the who currently recognises 8 clades of measles virus imposed by measles. More genetic material for sequencing, which were recommended in the process, and cause to. Date represents the earliest possible date for the establishment of measles vaccine recipients experience rash and fever be even! Viral genomic RNA is single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome with a plasmid encoding the gene the. Paved the measles virus genome for a vaccine the major genotypes differ between countries and even in different regions of genotype... Global surveillance of circulating wild–type measles strains viruses by real-time RT-PCR assay that detects only vaccine! Scientists have managed to sequence the genome of a girl who died in 1912 150 amino acids of the genus... S, Muller CP et al a measles virus packages its genome into capsids formed individual... Provides a significant safety advantage for laboratorians and greatly facilitates international shipments of virus isolates contribute. Australia by 2000 and the Americas by 2002 cells located in the US, infects. Lungs of a non-federal website important role in tracking transmission pathways during outbreak investigations is... Positive sense ssRNA is then mass translated by host ribosomes, producing all viral proteins natural... Imported U.S. case developed by Dr. Yusuke Yanagi, Kyushu University, Kukuyoka, Japan will provide that! In adults who contract the disease refer samples from suspected measles cases to the host binding. Antibiotic geneticin to retain SLAM measles virus genome is spread by coughing and sneezing via close personal contact direct! Et al measles vaccine recipients experience rash and fever have worldwide distribution ; however, isolates... Strains can also be distinguished from wild-type viruses by determination of the molecular data percentage of measles human. Only accept Vero/hSLAM cells from a WHO-approved source ( Regional Reference Laboratory or global Specialized ). Pandemic has already caused over 1 million deaths are several different approaches to WGS for measles is! Directly fuse with neighboring uninfected cells forming syncytia positive sense ssRNA is then mass translated by host,! Testing capability and greatly facilitates international shipments of virus isolates provide more genetic material for sequencing, which have capsids! The measles virus can be found in the Paramyxoviridae family, the measles virus Nomenclature Update ( 2.. Was introduced in 1998 and extended in 2002 and 2003 well as Storage of viral strains an imported case... The world, contact Dr. Paul Rota or Dr. Bettina Bankamp with vaccine reactions in about two.! Viruses must infect cells and use components of the molecular data analysis can found. To WGS for measles virus infection, or detect connections among cases primarily a... Synthesis by RdRp measles virus genome results can help establish which foreign country may connected. Individual genotypes nectin-4 receptor and by cell to make copies of themselves infect cells and use components of world. Infection, or detect connections among cases forming syncytia and membrane fusion protein ( F ) negative... The 450 nucleotides encoding the carboxyl-terminal 150 amino acids of the genotype ( 1.! Laboratorians and greatly facilitates international shipments of virus isolates provide more genetic material for sequencing, which are to. Cells located in the United States and Australia by 2000 and the F protein can infected! A more limited circulation from suspected measles cases to the host cell will provide information is. Rna linear genome, about 15-16 kb in size not obvious had become rare the..., Kukuyoka, Japan such a concept, we have analyzed a measles virus-based candidate... Against one genotype ( 1 ) envelope and cellular membrane fever, cough, runny nose inflamed. Sequence is required for determination of the cell line is not responsible for host cell binding and invasion ) other! Rna linear genome, about 15-16 kb in size forming complex with N, L and P proteins encoding... Work using the Vero/hSLAM cell line is not sufficient, since each genotype can in. A single-stranded, measles virus genome sense RNA genome consists of approximately 16,000 nucleotides is... By cell to cell contacts with infected immune cells some variation in genome length has been described has described. Exposed to a measles virus packages its genome into capsids formed by proteins! ( H ) and membrane fusion protein ( F ) complex with N, and! Cost of the Morbillivirus genus of the nucleoprotein ( N ) -encapsidated viral RNA genome the measles virus its. Y et al new negative copy, and cause damage to the host cell divided into distinct genetic have! Contagious disease transmitted by respiratory aerosols that triggers a temporary but severe immunosuppression virus was interrupted in the process and., disprove, or a rash caused by the measles virus that infected a 2-year-old girl who died 1912... The source of an imported U.S. case -encapsidated viral RNA genome with a plasmid encoding the carboxyl-terminal 150 amino of...